Super-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Spring Corn in Jilin Province and Summer Corn in Some Areas
Selected varieties The selected varieties require compact plant types and tolerance to dense planting. If the density reaches 5000 plants/mu or more, there is no lodging, no empty stalk, no bald tip, and the average grain weight per spike is more than 200 grams. The growth period is about 125 days in spring and 105 days in summer; seed treatment. Pick out the broken, moldy and spoiled kernels and uncut kernels, choose the same size kernels, soak the seeds for 8 hours, dry them with 40% methyl ethion and 2% lixiu, and dress the seeds at 0.2% of the amount of seeds to prevent coarse shrinkage Disease, seedling blight, smut and underground pests.
Fine sowing, fine soil preparation. Before sowing, use fine plowing and soil preparation, applying 3 cubic meters of high-quality chicken manure per mu, 10 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, 30 kg of potassium oxide, 1 kg of zinc fertilizer, 1.5 kg of 5% phoxim granules, and sowing with sufficient moisture. Sowing from June 5th to 15th, planting in large and small rows, the largest row spacing is 80-90 cm, the small row spacing is 30-40 cm, the amount of seed for on-demand sowing is 3 to 4 kilograms per mu, and 5 kilograms of compound fertilizer per mu is used as seed fertilizer. Fertilizer is isolated, the depth of the cover is the same, and the thickness is 3 cm.
Increase the density. The planting density is 6000～7000 plants per mu, and time seedlings and fixed seedlings. Ensure that the number of plants harvested at harvest is more than 5500 plants per mu.
Adequate fertilization is generally calculated based on the application of 3 kg of nitrogen (N), 1 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), and 3 kg of potassium (K2O) for every 100 kg of grain produced; phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are used as base fertilizer; nitrogen fertilizer is lightly applied for seedling fertilizer, and ear fertilizer is reapplied. Apply granular fertilizer as appropriate.
Fine management Watering in time. Drought must be irrigated from emergence to the small bell mouth. After the big bell mouth period, the surface should be wet but not dry. Cultivation loosens the soil. From the post-emergence to the small bell mouth period, it is generally cultivated for 2 to 3 times to keep the soil loose and prevent diseases, insects and weeds. Weed control: spray 100～120ml 50% acetochlor with water 30～50kg on the ground before emergence after sowing. Control of rough dwarf disease: Use Aphid to control Laodelphax striatellus in the seedling stage. The second and third generations of armyworm and thrips control: spray control with 50% phoxim 1000 times and dichlorvos EC 2000 times, the control time is in the seedling and ear stage, and it can also control corn aphids and scaly spotted snow moth.
The yield index of super-high yield of spring corn under rain-fed conditions is 900-1100 kg/mu. In the research of super-high-yield technology, based on the previous research results of the research group, the individual technologies have been assembled and integrated, and the high-yield and high-efficiency corn in different regions has been established. The technical model has finally formed an ultra-high-yield technology model centered on "promoting seedlings-controlling stalks-protecting ears-increasing grains-promoting maturity". High density, high uniformity, high population quality, high number of grains per ear, and high thousand-grain weight.
Screening and optimizing varieties. The varieties with a growth period of 125-130 days are more suitable. The emergence period is from May 15th to 18th, and the physiological maturity period is from September 18th to 23rd. It can not only make full use of light and heat resources, but also mature normally, and it is easy to achieve super high yield. . To this end, the research team used the integrated research and demonstration construction of high-yield, high-yield and high-efficiency technology to increase the temperature of maize in the humid regions of the eastern part of our province, and adopted super-high-yield varieties with high yield potential. Whether or not the overshoot is the standard. In addition, disease resistance and lodging resistance have become one of the necessary conditions for the research team to screen and optimize varieties. The application of dense-tolerant spring corn varieties improves the efficiency of light and temperature and achieves the purpose of increasing photosynthetic products.
Improve soil conditions. High-yield, super-high-yield soil with high nutrient content and good physical properties. The soil bulk density of the cultivated layer is low, the content of medium silt-clay particles is small, and the permeability is good, which is very beneficial to the development of the root system. In the super-high-yield research experiment, the research team used part of the straw and stubble to be returned to the field to deepen the plough layer and stubble to prevent wind and water erosion, and solved the deterioration of the physical and chemical properties of the plough layer, poor soil water and fertilizer retention, and reduced fertility. , The average annual increase of soil organic matter is 0.64g/kg. Especially the deep ploughing and deep loosening technology, the test field has been deep ploughed (loose) more than 30 cm for 2 consecutive years, which effectively improved the physical and chemical properties of the soil, promoted root piercing, and prevented plant lodging and premature aging.
Efficient and precise fertilization. According to the law of high fertilizer absorption of super-high-yield varieties and shifting of the peak of fertilizer absorption, the principle of fertilization in super-high-yield fields adopted by the research team is to promote, control, and promote later, and to increase the application of organic fertilizers, rationally apply chemical fertilizers, and apply high-quality fertilizers per mu. The fertilizer is 4 cubic meters. Improve the fertilizer utilization rate and improve the accuracy of fertilizer application. Compared with the habitual fertilization technology, the fertilizer utilization rate has been increased from 30% to 33% to more than 40%.
Establish a super-high-yield group structure. Planting density is a very active factor affecting corn yield. Under the premise of adopting corn varieties with good density tolerance, the population structure of super high yield density is the basis for realizing super high yield. The requirement for planting density for super high yield is 5500-6000 seedlings per mu. The yield composition is 5000-5500 ears per mu, 547-580 grains per ear, and 300-400 grams per thousand grains.
Seed treatment and growth period chemical control. Under ultra-high density conditions, seed treatment and growth period chemical control technology is a very necessary measure. The research group applied plasma technology to treat seeds to improve seed germination, improve seedling uniformity, promote root development, and enhance water and fertilizer absorption. Through chemical control technology, plant height is reduced, stalk strength is enhanced, and lodging is effectively prevented.