Tips for using microbial fertilizer
In recent years, many farmers have gradually paid attention to the use of biological fertilizers, but only know how to apply them, but do not know how to make them multiply quickly after application, resulting in weak activity of the biological bacteria applied in the soil, low survival rate and poor effect . So, how can the biological bacteria play their due role after being applied to the soil? The main reason is that the biological bacteria are expensive to "nourish" after being applied to the soil.
First of all, after the biological bacteria are applied to the soil, a good environment for survival must be created.
How to create a good living environment? Mainly, the following points should be done:
One is to control the ground temperature in the shed. In general, the biological bacteria in bacterial fertilizers are most active at 18-25°C, and their life activities begin to decrease when the temperature is below 15°C, and their activity is very weak when the temperature is below 10°C, even in a dormant state.
If you want to control the ground temperature, you must first control the temperature inside. Generally, the temperature in the shed should be kept at 25-30℃ during the day and the temperature in the shed at night is low. In order to avoid the loss of ground temperature and keep the ground temperature constant, in addition to covering with mulch film, during operation It is also a good way to cover crop stalks in the industry.
The second is to regulate the humidity of the soil. Insufficient soil water content is not conducive to the growth and reproduction of biological bacteria, but the soil is also not conducive to the survival of biological bacteria under the conditions of excessive watering, poor air permeability, and low oxygen content, because biological bacteria are mostly aerobic, generally The life activities of biological bacteria are most active when the soil sees dry and wet. Therefore, in addition to regulating the ground temperature, proper watering is also an important factor. Under normal circumstances, watering should be carried out in the morning on a sunny day, because watering during this period is conducive to the restoration of ground temperature and the removal of moisture in the shed. When watering, you should pay attention to watering small water, avoid flooding with large water, and hoe in time after watering to increase the air permeability of the soil and promote the life activities of biological bacteria.
The third is to provide sufficient "food" for biological bacteria.
Biological bacteria are living organisms, and they also need to "eat". Therefore, adequate food is the basis for the survival of biological bacteria. In many greenhouse areas, vegetable farmers do not pay attention to the application of organic fertilizers such as chicken manure. The organic matter content of the soil in the greenhouse is severely poor, and the organic matter content in some areas is not 1%. The biological bacteria in the soil can't get food for a long time, and survival is a problem. How can they work for us? Therefore, before planting vegetables, we must pay attention to applying sufficient organic fertilizer. Generally, we should apply decomposed farmyard manure per acre of vegetable land 15- 20 cubic meters or 30-40 cubic meters of rice dung is appropriate. In addition, in top dressing, it is best to use a set meal containing high-quality organic activating nutrients, such as Jiamei Bonus, Jinli, and Profit.
Fourth is to try to avoid damage to biological bacteria.
Biological bacteria are most afraid of fungicides, and many vegetable farmers often use fungicides to irrigate their roots to prevent vegetable root diseases. This undoubtedly destroys the biological bacteria that have just settled in the soil. In addition, a large number of chemical fertilizers are also harmful to the biological bacteria in the soil. Therefore, for greenhouses where biological bacterial fertilizers are applied, the use of fungicides for root irrigation should be avoided as much as possible, and chemical fertilizers such as a large number of elemental water-soluble fertilizers should be used less.
Fifth, the pH of the soil is also required for biological bacteria.
The alkaline or acidic soil is not conducive to the growth and reproduction of biological bacteria. Under normal circumstances, when the soil pH is between 6.5 and 7.5, it is most suitable for the propagation of biological bacteria. Vegetable farmers can modify them according to their own soil conditions, so that biological bacteria can "live" in a good soil environment.
Six is the matters needing attention when using biological fertilizer.
1. Validity period: At present, the survival time of effective bacteria of microbial fertilizers in my country is not much longer than one year. Therefore, the purchased microbial fertilizers should be used as soon as possible. If the storage time is too long, the dormant state of the bacteria may be destroyed.
2. Application temperature: The best temperature for applying bacterial fertilizer is 22℃-35℃, lower than 5℃, higher than 40℃, and the application effect is poor. It is not suitable to be applied to crop fields under high temperature, low temperature and drought conditions. The optimum temperature of nitrogen-fixing bacterial fertilizer is 60%-70%.
3. Application plots: For soil and rusty paddy fields with high sulfur content, it is not suitable to apply biological bacterial fertilizer, because sulfur can kill biological bacteria. For the paddy fields that are tumbling, spraying is generally not necessary, and the effect of spraying will be better.
4. Bacteria count: Microbial fertilizers with effective viable counts below the standard cannot be purchased. The state stipulates that the effective number of live bacteria of microbial inoculants is ≥200 million/g (100 million particles/g), and the number of effective live bacteria of compound microbial fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer is ≥20 million/g. If it does not meet this standard, it means that the product quality does not meet the requirements.
5. Application period: Biological bacterial fertilizer is not a quick-acting fertilizer. It is generally used as a base fertilizer. If it is topdressed, it should be applied 7-10 days before the critical period of crop nutrition and the period of nutrient absorption. The effect is good.
6. Mixing: Be careful not to mix bacterial fertilizer with fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, sulfur-containing fertilizers (such as potassium sulfate, etc.) and plant ash, because these drugs and fertilizers can easily kill biological bacteria. Or apply bacterial fertilizer first, and then spray medicine to weed after 48 hours. If dressing seeds, do not mix them with seeds that have been mixed with fungicides. It should also be prevented from mixing with immature farmyard manure.
7. Dosage: For fields where chemical fertilizers have been applied for many years, the application amount of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers cannot be greatly reduced when applying biological bacterial fertilizers. Because crops are dependent on chemical fertilizers, replacing nitrogen fertilizers with biological bacterial fertilizers cannot be adapted at once. Therefore, its replacement amount should be replaced by 30%, 40%, and 60% in the first, second, and third years respectively. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can only make up, not reduce.